Process safety risks. High energy processes and high energy/high toxicity substance inventories. Major accident causes, consequences and preventative action. Personnel health and safety. SMS and MAPP. Process safety analysis. Loss prevention. Process safety in design. Process safety in operations. Defining and quantifying risk. Checklists. Hazard and operability analysis (HAZOP) studies. Hazard analysis (HAZAN) techniques. Human factors and human error in major hazard accidents. Linking HAZOPS, process control, instrumentation and alarm systems. Cost of plant safety. Environmental impact. Case studies of serious plant accidents e.g. Buncefield, BP Grangemouth, Flixborough, Piper Alpha, BP Deepwater Horizon, PetroChina Jilin, Mari-Vassilikos